CRUD is an abbreviation that stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete. It is a concept of managing record-oriented persistent storage. Persistent storage refers to a storage device that retains power after it is powered off. Examples include solid-state drives (SSD) and hard disk. In contrast, internal cache and random access memory (RAM) are examples of volatile memory – data is wiped out when powered off.
The four components/functions of the CRUD concept are:
- Create — Users create a new record in the database.
- Read — Users search and retrieve records as well as read the values within that record.
- Update — Users modify existing records.
- Delete — Users remove records that are no longer required.
CRUD is used in database management, web development and computer programming. It is at the heart of applications that interact with data storage systems. For example, on an e-commerce platform, users can use the ‘Create’ function to create a new product, use ‘Read’ to retrieve/display product information, ‘Update’ to update pricing and other product information, and ‘Delete’ to get rid of a product that is no longer available.
CRUD is applied to many settings across industry verticals and business models. Any organization that has to keep track of records such as customer information, transaction data and employee details needs persistent storage.
Benefits of CRUD operations include:
- Standardize data storage interaction.
- Simplifies development.
- Improves maintainability.
- Enhances user experience.
- Facilitates flexibility and modularity.
- Enables scalability.
- Enhances technological compatibility.
Without optimal database design, CRUD operations can adversely affect database performance. Database administrators tune their systems to ensure CRUD operations complete soon as possible.